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7th Grade World History

Ancient Rome

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G.eopraphy

 

This small village soon grew into a gigantous city.  Rome at it's height in 117 with about 1 million people, covered what we know now as Spain, Gaul, Italy, Britian, Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, and part of Africa.  If you lived in Ancient Rome at this time, then you would have a pleasant life.  With a theater, arena, public baths, and a marketplace you would be living the good life.

 

Constantinople was built on an ancient Greek tradeing center called Byzantium.  This city was located on a pininsula surrounded by the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.  This spot protected it from attack and let the city take full advantage of trading between Europe and Asia.

R.eligion

 

As Christianity walked its way through the Roman Empire, it was un-noticed.  Even though some officials tried to stop this major religion from spreading, it just kept on walking.  By the 300's everyone was in on this new relligion, including the Roman Emperor at that time thus making it the official religion of the Roman Empire.  The Pope, bishop of Rome,  soon became the most influential leader of the church leaders.  With the help of other church leaders, the pope reunified Rome as a Christian society.

     Christianity was central to the Byzantine people's  lives, exactlry like the west.  They created beautiful pieces of religious art to show their devotion to God.  These pieces sparkled with jewels, gold, and silver.  Hagia Sophia and other Byzantine churches were even more magnificent than their art.  Eventhough this was a great piece of art, it couldn't stop the churches from spliting into Eastern and Western Europe, AGAIN!!!!!!  The Eastern side was called the Orthodox Church.

The Beautiful Hagia Sophia

 
Barbarian Invasions
 
Even though Constantine runited and moved the capital there were still barbarian invasions.  Fierce warriors from Central Asia called Huns bombarded southeastern Europe.  From there, the Huns launched raids on kingdoms that were nearby.  The Goths were among the raided knigdoms.  These Goths moved backwards into Roman teritory in fear of being defeated.  The Roman emperors were afraid that these people would defeat what was their civalization.  The Goths won and moved tward Rome lands.  Because of this, Rome was defeated in 410.  This trophy of excellents was bragged to the other barbarian troupes who then invaded the western half of the empire.  The Vandals invaded and destroyed Spain in the 400's.  They soon waltzed through Roman settelments and completley shattered them.  More invasions were come apon Gaul.  Clovis a Frankish king built a huge kingdom in Gaul.  Attila the Hun raided Constantinople, Greece, Gaul, and parts of northern Italy.  After those tretorous victories he dicided to not stick around for diseases but to go south twards Rome.  These efforts to destroy the Western Empire did not come short.  Not only did they take Rome's cities, but hey took their pride.

P.olitics

 

Augustus was the Roman's first emperor. 

His duties were to:

  • declare war
  • raise taxes
  • punish lawbreakers
  • nominate public officials
  • inflence meetings of Senate, the elected council that had once ruled Rome
  • lead religious festivals

Laws were placed where everyone could see them.  These laws stated how one should behave and act.  Because of this, officials had to be fair to everyone.  Citizenscould pariticipate in government stuff like hold positions and vote.  But it wasn't all fun and games, citizens had to pay taxes and men had to serve their time in the army when needed.

     This time of "perfectness" didn't last forever though, because Diocletian divided the empire into two.  Ruling the Eastern half, he sent a co-emperor to go do his job in the other part.  After a while a new emperor, Constantine, reunited the two halves.  While doing this he moved Constantinople, the new capital, into the east.

     Justantine, a Roman Emperor, had a dream of taking back Rome and reuniting the Empire.  He sent his troops out to take back Italy and they were successful in not only that but they also took back much of the Mediterranean.  He also looked at the laws and overruled out-of-date and unchristian laws.  Then he called this system Justinian's Code.  Just like all emperors, Justinian had enemies.  In 532 two of them joined together and tried to overthrow him.  He was a chicken and ran.  Luckily for him and the Empire his wife, Theodora, smacked some sense into him and told him to stay.  He obeyed and, with the help of his amazing wife, won the war.  They also ruled the empire with much authority and power.  Unfortunatley Justantine didn't last very long.  He died in 565 and the eastern empire crumbled with all the invasions 700 years later.  This ended the 1000-year Roman rule.

E.conomics
 
Constantinople was probably one of the best trading centers of all the world at their time.  People from all around Europe, Asia, and Africa traveled to this city to trade.  This trade marked the trade of the best society of their time.

S.ocial Structure

 

Citizens could vote and hold public offices.  but had to pay taxes and men had to go to war when needed.  They were proud of their citizenship, and thought it was an honor to be a citizen of Rome.  Once they conquered people, they gave citizenship to special people.  This idea held the captured people to not revolt and take over the Empire.

     In the Byzatine Empire people spoke Greek instead of Latin.  They thought of themselves as Romans.

    

Patricians and plebeians

The broadest division was by ancestry, between patricians, those who could trace their ancestry to the first Senate established by Romulus,[1] and plebeians, all other citizens. Originally, all public offices were open only to patricians, and the classes could not intermarry. Contemporary politicians and writers (Coriolanus, for example) in the Kingdom and early Republic thought of plebeians as rabble barely capable of sentient thought. However, the plebeians, by withdrawing their labour, had the power to force change. A series of social struggles (see Conflict of the Orders) saw the plebs secede from the city on three occasions, the last in 297 BC, until their demands were met. They won the right to stand for office, the abolition of the intermarriage law, and the office of tribune of the plebs. This office, founded in 494 BC as a result of a plebeian secession, was the main legal bulwark against the powers of the patrician class. The tribunes originally had the power to protect any plebeian from a patrician magistrate. Later revolts forced the Senate to grant the tribunes additional powers, such as the right to veto legislation. A tribune's person was sacrosanct, and he was obliged to keep an open house at all times while in office.

 

Following these changes the distinction between patrician and plebeian status became less important. Over time, some patrician families fell on hard times, some plebeian families rose in status, and the composition of the ruling class changed. Some patricians, notably Publius Clodius Pulcher, petitioned to be assigned plebeian status, partly in order to run for the position of tribune but also partly to lessen the patrician tax burden. Rome's growing economic power as a trading nation left many patrician families from behind; those that could not adjust to the new commercial realities of Roman society often found themselves in the embarrassing position of having to marry their daughters to wealthier plebeians or even freedmen. A plebeian, such as Marius or Cicero, who was the first of his line to become consul, was known as a novus homo ("new man"), and he and his descendants became nobiles ("nobles"); however they remained plebeian. Some religious offices remained reserved for patricians, but otherwise the distinction was largely a matter of prestige.

A.chievements
 
Rome's achievements played a HUGE part on the success of the Romean Empire.  These achievements are: aqueducts- human made channels that carried water frome distant mountain ranges into Rome and other cities; architecture- made stronger, more beautiful buildings(their ideas influenced some of our buildings today, like California State Capiral); roads- made it so that Romans wouldn't hurt their feet and could travel on something besides dirt; philosophy- focused on improving people's lives.  These are only some of the great accomplishments that Rome  gave to the world.
an ancient rome aqueduct

Fall of the Roman Empire
 
Here are some Quick Facts to the fall of the Roman Empire:
 
Problems within the Empire
  • Large size made comminication difficult
  • Corruption became common
  • Taxes and prices rose

Problems Outside the Empire

  • Barbarians began invading the Empire

Attila the Hun in battle with Rome

Jeremiah 29:11 "'For I know the plans I have for you," declares the LORD, 'plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.'"
Joshua 1:9"'Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous.  
Do not be terrified; 
Do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.'"
Isaiah 40:28-31 "'Have you never heard? Have you never understood?The Lord is the everlasting God,the Creator of all the earth.He never grows weak or weary.No one can measure the depths of his understanding.29 He gives power to the weakand strength to the powerless.30 Even youths will become weak and tired,and young men will fall in exhaustion.31 But those who trust in the Lord will find new strength.They will soar high on wings like eagles.They will run and not grow weary.They will walk and not faint.'"                                        
http://www.biblegateway.com/

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