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7th Grade World History

Vocabulary

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Ancient Rome
Ancient Islam
Ancient Africa
Ancient China
Ancient Japan
The Americas
Medieval Europe
The Renaissance
The Reformation
Games
Artifacts
Vocabulary
Compare/Contrast

I don't know about you but I know that I have trouble with vocabulary.  You really need to know the vocabulary in every section to really get the section.  I've created a "cheat sheet" for those people who just don't get vocab. . . like me.

Ancient Rome

Word

Defintion

Augustus
Rome's first Emperor
citizens
people who could participate in the government
aqueducts
human-made channels that carried water from distant mountain ranges into Rome or other cities
Diocletian
divided Empire into two in late 200's
Constantine
Emperor who reunited Rome
Clovis
Frankish King who built huge kingdom in Gaul
Attila
lead Huns into Rome
corruption
the decay of people's values
Justinian
Emperor who retook Italy and much of the land around the Mediterranean
Theodora
wife of Justinian she stoped him from leaving the city and helped him rule effectively
Byzantine Empire
society that developed in the eastern Roman Empire after the west fell
mosaics
pictures made with pieces of colored stone or glass

 
 
 
Ancient Africa

Word
Defintion
rifts
long deep valleys formed by the movement of the earth's crust
sub-Saharan Africa
Africa south of the Sahara
Sahel
strip of land that divides teh desert from wetter areas
savannah
open grassland wtih scattered trees
rain forests
moist densely wooded areas
extended family
include father mother children and close relatives
animism
belief that bodies fo water animals trees and other natural objects have spirits
silent barter
process in which people exchange goods without ever contacting each other directly
Tunka Manin
Ghanah reached it's peak under him
Sundiata
Mali's rise to power began under this emperor
Mansa Musa
Mali's most famous ruler, and Mali reaches height under him
Sunni Ali
Soghai's growth was largely the work of this man
Askia the Great
after overthrowing Sunni Baru, he took title of askia which means high military rank, he became known as Askia the Great
oral history
spoken record of past events
griots
West African storytellers

proverbs

short sayings of wisdom or truth

kente

a hand-woven brightly colored fabric

 
 
 
 
Ancient China

Word
Definition
Period of Disunion
historians someimes call the time that followed the collapse of the Han this name
Grand Canal
a canal linking northern and southern China
Empress Wu
only woman to rule China
porcelain
a thin beautiful type of pottey
wood block printing
form of pronting n which and entire page is carved into a block of wood
gun powder
a mixture of powders used in guns and explosives
compass
this instrument, which uses the earth's magnetic field to show direction, revolutionized travel
bureaucracy
body of unelected government officials
civil service
means service as a government official
scholar-official
educated member of the government
Genghis Khan
title meaning "Universal Ruler"
Kublai Khan
1260 grandson took over
Zheng He
greatest sailor of the period
isolationism
policy of avoiding contact with other countries

Ancient Islam

Word
Definition
sand dunes
hills of sand shaped by the wind
oasis
a wet fertile area in a desert
sedentary
settled
caravan
group of traders that travel together
souk
market or bazaar
Muhammad
brought different religion to the people of Arabia, and got visited by the angel Gabriel
Islam
message Muhammad received form the basis of the religion
Muslim
follower of Islam
Qur'an
holy book of Islam
shrine
a place at which people worship a saint or a god
pilgrimage
journey to a sacred place
mosque
building for Muslim prayer
jihad
means "to make an effort, or to struggle"
Sunnah
to the way Muhammad lived which provides a model for the duties and the way of life expected of Muslims
Five Pillars of Islam
five acts of worshop required by all Muslims:
  1. saying "there is no god byt God, and Muhammad is his prophet"
  2. praying 5 times a day
  3. giving to the poor and needy
  4. fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
  5. Traveling to Mecca at least once on a hajj

Abu Bakr

one of Muhammad's first convers

Caliph

title that Muslims use for the highest leader of Islam

tolerance

acceptance

Janissaries

slave soldiers converted to Islam and became fierce fighters

Mehmed II

led Ottomans to conquer Constantinople

sultan

Ottoman ruler

Suleyman I

Ottoman reached height under this emperor

harem

household of woman living in it away from the men

Shia

Muslims that thought that only members from Muhammad's famliy could become calphis

Sunni

didn't htink caliphs had to be related to Muhammad as long as they were strong leaders

Ibn Battutah

explorer who traveled to Africa, India, China, and Spain in 1300's

Sufism

teachs that people can find God's love by having a personal relationship with God

Omar Khayyam

one of the most famous Sufi poets

minaret

narrow tower from which Muslims are called to prayer

patorns

sponsors

calligraphy

decoritive writing

 
 
 
 
Ancient Japan

Word
Definition
clans
extended families
Shinto
traditional religion of Japan
Prince Shotoku
brought ideas to Japan
regent
person who rules a country for someone who is unable to rule alone
court
group of nobles who live near and serve or advise a ruler
Lady Murasaki Shikibu
one of the greatest writers in japanese history
Zen
popular new form of Buddhism arrived from China
daimyo
Japan's large landowners
samurai
trained professional warriors
figure head
person who appear to rule even though real power rests with someone else
shogun
general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name
Bushido
samurai code of rules

The Americas

Word
Definition
Mesoamerica
a regio that includes the southern part of what is now Mexico and parts of the northern contries of Central America
maize
corn
obsidian
sharp, glasslike volcanic rock
Pacal
a king that had a temple honored after him
observatories
buildings to study astronomy
Popol Vuh
Mya legends and history were written in this book
causeways
raised roads across water or wet ground
conquistadors
Spanish soilders
Hernan Cortes
conquered Aztecs with conquistadors
Moctezuma II
Aztec Emperor who let Cortes in his empire
codex
written historical records in a book made of seperate pages
Pachacuti
led Incas to expand empire
Quechua
Incas official language
llamas
animals that are related to camels but native to South America
Atahualpa
won the battle against his bro to gain control of empire but soon lost it to Pizzaro captured it
Francisco Pizarro
captured king and captured empire
masonry
stone work

 
 
 
 
Medieval Europe continued...

Word
Definition
excommunicate
cast out from church
Pope Gregory VII
1073 a new pope arised
Emperor Henry IV
was excommunicated from church by Pope Gregory VII
Crusades
a long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia
Holy Land
Europes called Palestine this because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died
Pope Urban II
helped Byzatine Empire to defend Constantinople
King Richard I
when german king died, and french king left, this king was the only person to stay in the holy land
Saladin
leader of muslim forces and main opponent for King Richard I
clergy
church officials
religious order
group of people who dedicate their lives and follow common rules
Francis of Assisi
friar who made the order Franciscans
friars
people who belonged to religios orders but lived and worked among the general public
Thomas Aquinas
Dominican philosopher
natural law
a law that governed how the world operated
Magna Carta
document listing rights that the king could not ignore
Parliament
in time the council developed into this, the lawmaking body that govens England today
Hundred Years' War
a long conflict between England and France that came to be
Joan of Arc
teenage girl that led French into defeating England
Black Death
a deadly plague taht swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351

 
 
 
 
The Reformation

Word
Definition
Reformation
a reform movement of Western Christianity
indulgence
a relaxation of penalties for sins people had committed
purgatory
in catholic teachings, this was a place where souls went before they went to heaven
Martin Luther
started refomation but never wanted to leave Catholic Church
Protestants
those sho sided wiht Luther and protested against the church became known as these
John Calvin
most influential figure of the Reformation after Luther
King Henry VIII
major figure of Reformation was him
Catholic Reformation
effort made to reform the Catholic Church from within is called this
Ignatius of Loyola
this spanish noble founded the first new order
Francis Xavier
most important missionary of period was jesuit priest
Huguenots
French Protestants were called this
Edict of Nantes
granting religios freedom in most of France
Thirty Years' War
a long series of wars that involved many of the countries of Europe
congregation
church assembly
federalism
sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government

Jesuits

a religious order created to serve the pope and the chuch

 
 
 
So that's the vocabulary for all the stuff that we have learned.  I hope that you will enjoy the rest of this site!

Medieval Europe

Word
Definition
Eurasia
large landmass that includes both Euroupe and Asia
topography
shape and elevation of land in a region
Middle Ages
period that lasted from about 500 to about 1500
medieval
another name for the middle ages
Patrick
monk who taught people about Christianity
monks
religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities, had no belongings
monasteries
communities of monks
Benedict
set rules for monks to follow
Charlemagne
Frank empirer reached height with him
knights
warriors who fought on horseback
vassal
knight who promissed to support a lord in exchange for land
fuedalism
historians call this system of promises that governed the relationships between lords and vassals
William the Conqueror
conquered England  and declared himself King
manor
large estate owned by a knight or lord
serfs
workers who were tied to the land on which they lived
Eleanor of Aquitaine
was one of the most powerful people in the Middle Ages
chivalry
Europeans called their code of honorable behavior for knights this
haiku
short three line poems of 17 syllables that describe nature scenes

 
 
 
 
Medieval Europe continued...

Word
Definition
heresy
religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings
Reconquista
efforts to retake Spain from Moors
King Ferdinand
ruled Spain
Queen Isabella
ruled Spain with husband King Ferdinand
Spanish Inquisition
an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly pracicing their old religion

 
 
 
 
The Renaissance

Word
Definition
Marco Polo
travled with his family across teh Silk Road
interest
a fee that borrowers pay for the use of smeone else's money
Cosim de' Medici
ruler of Florence in 1434
Renaissance
means "rebirth" and refers to the period that followed Europe's Middle Ages
humanism
study of the humanities led to a new way of thinking and learning known as this
Dante Alighieri
politician and poet that contributed big time for the Renaissance
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote a book that gave leaders advice on how they should rule
perspective
a method of showing a three-dimensional scene on a flat surface so that it looks real
Michelangelo
great artist, designed buildings, wrote poetry, carved sculptures, and painted pictures
Leonardo da Vinci
true genius fo the Renaissance, painted well-known Mona Lisa
Petrarch
wrote about the importance of knowing history
Johann Gutenberg
developed a printing press that used movable type
Christian humanism
resulting combination of humanist and religious ideas is called this
Desiderius Erasmus
dutch priest that was the most important scholar
Albrecht Durer
famous norther artist from Gerany, studied astronomy
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote a book that poked fun at romantic tales of the middle ages
William Shakespeare
greatest writer in English history for poems, plays, and books

 
 
 
 
The Scientific Revolution

Word
Definition
Scientific Revolution
the series of events taht led to the birth of modern science
science
is a particular way of gaining knowledge about the world
theories
explanations scientists based on these facts
Ptolemy
greek thinker and an ancient astronomer
rationalists
people who looked at the world in a rational or reasonable and logical
alcnemy
was a forerunner of chemistry
Nicolaus Copernicus
wrote a book to start the scientific revolution
Sir Isaac Newton
he marked high point, created Newton's law
Tycho Brache
observed the stars
Johannes Kepler
helped Brahe, discovered many theories
Galileo Galilei
first person to studiy sky with teloscope
barometer
scientific instrument that measures air pressure
Francis Bacon
english philosopher who read works of great scientists
Rene Descartes
believed to doubt everything until it could be proven true
scientific method
a step-by-step method for performing experiments and other scientific research
hypothesis
a solution that the scientist proposes to solve the problem

Jeremiah 29:11 "'For I know the plans I have for you," declares the LORD, 'plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.'"
Joshua 1:9"'Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous.  
Do not be terrified; 
Do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.'"
Isaiah 40:28-31 "'Have you never heard? Have you never understood?The Lord is the everlasting God,the Creator of all the earth.He never grows weak or weary.No one can measure the depths of his understanding.29 He gives power to the weakand strength to the powerless.30 Even youths will become weak and tired,and young men will fall in exhaustion.31 But those who trust in the Lord will find new strength.They will soar high on wings like eagles.They will run and not grow weary.They will walk and not faint.'"                                        
http://www.biblegateway.com/

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