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7th Grade World History

The Reformation

Ancient Rome
Ancient Islam
Ancient Africa
Ancient China
Ancient Japan
The Americas
Medieval Europe
The Renaissance
The Reformation



Not all people wanted to change the church, some wanted to spread the ideas of the church to new areas.  They hoped to spread the idea to all of the world and win back Protestants.  Missionaries were sent ot non-Catholic places to try to convert them to it.  Most of the missionaries were jesuits.  They went to all sorts of different areas like Asia and China and even America.  Francis Xavier was one of the most important missionary.  He traveled all the way through Asia to try to convert people to Catholic.  Through his efforts, jsome people in thoes regions became Catholic.  Through alot of peoples efforts, the religion of Catholic was spread far beyond Europe.

     There were different religions with in different countries.  For example, in Spain most people were Catholic, in England Scotland Norway and Sweden most people were Protestant, while in the Holy Roman Empire each prince chose their religion.



The church had priests and bishops.  Some people thought that these people weren't religious anymore.  So they started to break away from the church.  Another reason that they broke away from the church is that they had too much money.  Churches sold indulgence, relaxation of penalties for sins people had committed.  All of these people who broke away form the church were called reformers.

     Igantius of Loyola was a Spanish noble who founded one of the first new religious orders.  Jesuits served the popeand fought for the church.  Their goal was to teach people of Catholic ideas.  They hoped that this would turn people against Protestant ideas.  Angela Merici created the Ursuline Order.  This taught girls rather than boys.  Like the jesuits, the were devoted to Catholic.



There were many acheviements that were disguised in the Reformation period.  One huge one was the acheivement of breaking away from the church.  This led to different ideas and religions.  Another great accomplishment was the accomplishment of federalism, Edict of Nantes, congregation, and missions.  All of these alowed different people to go and praise by what ever their religion was.

Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was a council of church leaders that got together in Trent Italy to discuss, debate, and refrom Cathollic teachings.  They met three times between 1545 and 1563.  They dicided new rules to reform the Catholic religion.  They made it so that there was a clear distinction from Catholic and Protestant beliefs. 
Council of Trent



A priest  called Martin Luther was a priest who needed a break from the church.  So he nailed the Nintey-five Thesis to a church in Wittenberg and neighboring houses.  This criticized the churches practices and well just the church in general.  According to this person, those who believed in God and lived by the Bible would be saved.  Because of this, Luther was soon excomunicated.  He left the city immediatley.  Soon his ideas split the Roman Catholic Church.  Protestants, those who sided with Luther, protested against the church.  Luther taught that they didn't could have a direct relationship with God.  He taught that people should live by the bible, not by priests or the pope.  Luther soon translated the Bible into German, his native language.  So all of the teachings of Luther, led to the growth of the Lutheraen Church.  There were alot of other reformers too.  For example, William Tyndale taught that everyone should be able to read the Bible.  So he translated it into English and sent copies to England.  This act of courageness got him executed.  John Calvin taught the idea okf perdestination, God knew who would be saved even befor they were born.  This idea led to the church of Calvinists.  Calvinists'  were very religious and didn't have any form of entertainment.  They just sat there preaching the Bible.  Another reformer was Henry VIII.  He left the church because he asked the pope to get a divorce from his wife.  The pope refused and Henry left.  This led to th echurch of Anglican.  Many of his practices were those of the Catholic Church.

     The Catholic Reformation was a time of effort to reform the Catholic Chruch.  This didn't go so well.  They forced Muslims and Jews to get out of Spain or else.  This enforced the Spanish Inquisition.  This Inquisition allowed members to hunt and kill any members of the Muslim or Jew religion.  this worked so well that Catholics started to go twards Christians.  These included Protestants who wen't against the church's beliefs.  This sept out all of the other religions in Spain.  Therefore leaving Catholic Church very strong.

Martin Luther

     Although that the reformation was a peaceful time,  there still were alot of wars.  Some of these wars were started because of the conflict between religion and violence.  But often times the Catholics and Protestants went at it.  Huguenots, French Protestants, fought Catholics because the French King started to ban all Protestants.  St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre  was the worst incident of the war.  August 24, 1572 was the night that it took place.  Catholics killed about 3000 Protestants in Paris.  In 1598 the war had finally ended.  King Henry IV was forced to sign the Edict of Nantes.  This allowed Protestants to live  and worship anywhere except Paris and a few other cities.  This stopped war but didn't stop the hate between these two people.

     In 1618 an unhappy Protestant threw out two Catholic officials out the window.  He did this because they tried to force him to become Catholic.  Later the king had enforced this new rule all over Europe.  Angry Prostants overthrew Catholic rulers and replaced them with a ruler of their own ruler.  This long chain of events soon ended up as the 30 Years War.  The Holy Roman Empire was soon overpowered because of the Protestants alliances with other countries.  This ended in 1648 when the rulers signed a peace treaty.  This treaty was called the Treaty of Westphalia.  It allowed rulers to determine their countries own religion.  There were also political changes.  For example, the Holy Roman Empisre no longer existed and Germany was their own state.

People set up places to go to practice religion on the fertile land.  They also traded with other countries to get more crops and other valuable resources.  They used the sun, rain, and land to grow very magnificent crops.

S.ocial Structure


People had no voice in the government.  Now they still don't.  They just follow their own ideas not the ones of the clegry.  They set up congregation, church assembly, to make their own rules.  The wanting of power between the congregations led to federalism, sharing of power between local governments and a strong central governmnet.  The peopel of the time were based on the ideas of someone else.  now they think for themselves and don't let other people tell them what to do or how to think or what to belive.

Jeremiah 29:11 "'For I know the plans I have for you," declares the LORD, 'plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.'"
Joshua 1:9"'Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous.  
Do not be terrified; 
Do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.'"
Isaiah 40:28-31 "'Have you never heard? Have you never understood?The Lord is the everlasting God,the Creator of all the earth.He never grows weak or weary.No one can measure the depths of his understanding.29 He gives power to the weakand strength to the powerless.30 Even youths will become weak and tired,and young men will fall in exhaustion.31 But those who trust in the Lord will find new strength.They will soar high on wings like eagles.They will run and not grow weary.They will walk and not faint.'"