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7th Grade World History


Ancient Rome
Ancient Islam
Ancient Africa
Ancient China
Ancient Japan
The Americas
Medieval Europe
The Renaissance
The Reformation

Ancient Rome
It was a time of great expansion, military might, and opulence. From the
colliseum in Rome to the architecture in Britain, from Northern Africa to the
coasts of Spain, these people conquered the known civilized world. We are
happy to offer to collectors, both beginning and experienced, the opportunity
to own some of these unique and interesting artifacts of Ancient Rome. All
items are authentic and approximately 1500 to 2000 years old.


Ancient Islam

Ancient Japan

This sword on the left is called a tachi, and it is about 1,300 years old! It is amazing to me that swordsmiths were able to achieve this degree of razor sharpness and mirror polish without modern machinery. As Japanese swordcraft advanced, straight swords gave way to the familar curve in the right photo, which provided more cutting surface along the length of a slashing stroke.

Considerable artistry often went into the fashioning of the samurai's armor, as well.

The piercing eyes of this ancient Buddhist statue made it worthy of a photo.




Ancient Africa

Bead Necklaces. Anibeh and Buhen. 100 B.C.- A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 33cm long; 36cm long; 40cm long; 44cm long. (E 7767; E 7794; E 7922; E 15784)

Bronze Caldron and Bronze Bowl. Anibeh. Meroitic Period.
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 11.2cm high x 13.5cm diameter and 6.5cm high x 9.2cm diameter. (E 7129 and E 7137)

Ceramic Cups. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 9.9cm high x 10.4cm diameter; 8.3cm high x 9.1cm diameter; and 8.0cm high x 9.3cm diameter. (E 8645; E 8724; and E 8451)

Bottle, green glass. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 13.0cm high x 4.8cm wide x 5.5cm deep. (E 7339)

Ceramic Jar. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 34.0cm high x 29.4cm diameter. (E 8183)

Ceramic Jar. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 30.7cm high x 25.5cm diameter. (E 8170)

Ceramic Jar. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 28.0cm high x 23.5cm diameter. (E 8162)

Casket with lid, wood with carved ivory inlay. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 300
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. 28.1cm long x 26.9cm wide x 23.1cm deep. (E 7519)

Terracotta Stela with seventeen incised lines of Coptic. Arminna West, Lower Nubia. A.D. 921.
Collected during the Yale_Pennsylvania Expedition Nubia, 1961-62. 37cm long x 23.5cm wide x 3cm thick. (66-11-48)

Iron and Bronze Arrowheads. Anibeh. 100 B.C. - A.D. 100
Collected in 1908 by the E.B. Coxe, Jr. Expedition. length range: 13.6cm-6.2cm; width range: 2.9cm-1.3cm; thickness range: 0.6cm-0.2cm. (E 7292; E 7207; E 7270; E 7198; E 7276; E 7206; E 7280; E 7180; E 7238)

Ancient Africa

By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of northern Africa had become increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the Nile valley, and since nomadic hunter-gatherers began living in the region during the Pleistocene some 1.8 million years ago, the Nile has been the lifeline of Egypt.[8] The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization.[9]

A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)

 Predynastic Period

By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of unique cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry. The earliest were established in Lower Egypt at el-Omari, Merimda, and in the Faiyum. At the intersection of routes from the Sahara, the Nile valley, and the Near East, the Faiyum Neolithic culture displayed characteristics of each and was noted for advanced stone tools which shaped the prehistoric lithic industry in Egypt.[10][11] Merimda was one of the largest northern communities, and was unique for its sophisticated forms of vases and pottery ring-stands and ladles, and the stone maceheads that became popular during the Old Kingdom.[12]

The earliest cultures in southern Egypt, the Badari, were established a few centuries after their northern counterparts. Contemporaneous with the Maadi, Buto and Heliopolitan cultures to the north,[13] the Badari culture was known for its high quality ceramics, stone tools, and its use of copper.[14] Badarian burials, simple pit graves with signs of social stratification, suggest that the culture was coming under the control of more powerful leaders.[15] In the north, Maadian pottery was occasionally decorated with birds and serekhs bearing the first Horus names, a sign of increasing cultural sophistication.[16] Maadi was also the main source of basalt vessels, whose distribution becomes more widespread in the south after northern Egypt falls under the control of the Upper Egyptian rulers.[17]

In the south, the Naqada culture gradually developed into a civilization along the Nile by about 4000 BC. It had power centers at Nekhen and Abydos and it expanded its control of Egypt northwards.[18] The people of Naqada manufactured painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, and jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory. They also engaged in trade with Nubia, the oases of the western desert, and the Levant.[19] Naqada developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.[20] During the last phase of the predynastic, the Naqada culture began using written symbols that evolved into a full system of hieroglyphs for writing the Egyptian language.[21]

Early Dynastic Period

The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.

The ancient Egyptians chose to begin their official history with a king named "Meni" (or Menes in Greek) who they believed had united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The transition to a unified state actually happened more gradually than the ancient Egyptian writers would have us believe, and there is no contemporary record of Menes. Scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have actually been the pharaoh Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette in a symbolic act of unification.  The thirdird century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs following Menes into 30 dynasties, a system still in use today.

In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 BC, the first pharaohs solidified their control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which they could control the labor force and agriculture of the fertile delta region as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant. The increasing power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified pharaoh after his death.[ The strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs served to legitimize state control over the land, labor, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II
Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II

Stunning advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the Old Kingdom, fueled by the increased agricultural productivity made possible by a well developed central administration. Under the direction of the vizier, state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.[ With the surplus resources made available by a productive and stable economy, the state was able to sponsor construction of colossal monuments and to commission exceptional works of art from the royal workshops. The pyramids built by Djoser, Khufu, and their descendants are the most memorable symbols of ancient Egyptian civilization, and power of the pharaohs that controlled it.

Along with the rising importance of a central administration arose a new class of educated scribes and officials who were granted estates by the pharaoh in payment for their services. Pharaohs also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples to ensure that these institutions would have the necessary resources to worship the pharaoh after his death. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five centuries of these feudal practices had slowly eroded the economic power of the pharaoh, who could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.  As the power of the pharaoh diminished, regional governors called nomarchs began to challenge the supremacy of the pharaoh. This, coupled with severe droughts between 2200 and 2150 BC, ultimately caused the country to enter a 140-year period of famine and strife known as the First Intermediate Period.

Medieval Europe
Medieval England. 1300-1450 AD
Beautiful bronze horse harness decoration.
Found near Norlfolk, Britain.
Measures a huge 52 mm (over 2 inches) in diameter! Quite large for this type of piece. Great character and charm!

Medieval London, England
Pewter Brothel Token!!!!
Dates to the 14th-15th century AD. Found in an excavation in the Billingsgate area of old London, near the Tower Bridge. Depicts a naughty act (hard to decipher, thankfully). Measures 28 mm (1 1/8 inches) in diameter.

Interesting Medieval England pewter token depicting the King and Queen. Found in Suffolk, England.

Late Medieval bronze padlock.
Very cool. 17th century AD Croatia. 50 x 38 mm (1 7/8 x 1 /12 inches). Great bronze patina, Cyrillic inscription. It has sword knocks and dings on the top bar and the keyhole has been bent outward. But it is still locked!

Medieval Croatia/Serbia. Just after Venetian occupation. 14th century AD.
Iron carving knife. Remarkably well preserved and HUGE.

Ancient China

4100 terracotta soldiers excavated in 1974 in Pit 1 at the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, first emperor of China (221-210 BC) near Xian. These life-size figures represented one of potentially several vast pottery regiments that guarded the spirit of the late emperor. Three pits have been excavated to date, Pit 2 revealing a cavalry regiment, Pit 3 a commander's officer staff. Pit 1 was excavated in 1974.


Canonical Bronze Ritual Vessels of Classical China; molded using ceramic molds, employing incised detail.

Monsters in Chinese Sculpture: 1. Winged lion, statue at the tomb of Prince Hsaio Hsiu (d. 518 AD), near Nanking. 2. Chimaera statue at the tomb of the Emperor Ch'i Wu Ti (d. 493 AD), near Nanking. Chimaeras usually guarded the tombs of emperors; lions those of princes and dukes; the largest are 10-12 ft. long. 3-4. Chimaera statues from imperial tombs of the 6th centry AD. 5. Statue of winged lion at the tomb of Duke Hsaio Ching (d. 523 AD), near Nanking. Chimaeras were a cross between dragons and lions, lions tended to have wings.

Chinese Sculpture: Bronze pacing horse poised on a swallow with wings outstretched. From a tomb at Lei-t'ai, Kansu. Eastern Han Dynasty, 2nd century AD


The Americas

Aztec Calendar

In the tonalpohualli, the sacred Aztec calendar, today (Wednesday, April 9, 2008) is:


solar year


13-day period


flint knife crocodile house
9 - Tecpatl (flint knife) 1 - Cipactli (crocodile) 3 - Calli (house)


Lord of the Night


365-day calendar

Long Count:

(Maya Calendar)
Piltzintecuhtli 5 - Tlaxochimaco (X)

(Alfonso Caso correlation)

About the Aztec Calendar

The date as presented above shows the name of the year (the xihuitl in Nahuatl, the language of the Mexica or Aztecs), the name of the 13-day 'week' (trecena in Spanish) and the name and number of the day (tonalli) in the tonalpohualli, 260-day ritual daycount. Further, the Lord of the Night, the day in the 365-day calendar (the xiuhpohualli) and the (Mayan) Long Count are shown.
To understand the workings of the calendar and its significance for Aztec culture, see Introduction to the Aztec Calendar.

To find out the Aztec equivalent of any given date, go to the Date Calculator. Enter your birthdate and discover your Aztec name!
You can even change how the Aztec date on this site is correlated to our (Gregorian) date. To do so, go to Preferences. Experts can even use any correlation they like.



The decimal mathematical system widely used today originated by counting with the fingers a person has. Counting with the fingers and toes started the Maya vigesimal system. So it is based on groups of twenty units. Just as the decimal system goes by 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, etc., the Maya vigesimal system goes 1, 20, 400, 8000, 160000, etc. While in the decimal system there are ten possible digits for each placeholder [0 - 9], in the Maya vigesimal system each placeholder has a possible twenty digits [0 - 19]. For example, in the decimal system 31 = 10 * 3 + 1 while in the vigesimal system 31 = 20 + 11. The Maya discovered and used the zero. Their zero is represented by an ovular shell.

Characteristics of The Maya Mathematical System:

a) It is vigesimal, this means that it is based on 20 units [0 - 19] instead of the 10 units [0 - 9] of the decimal system. This table shows the first 20 numbers and their Arabic equivalents.

b) It only uses three symbols, alone or combined, to write any number. These are: the dot - worth 1 unit, the bar - worth 5 units and the zero simbolized by a shell.
c) It also uses a vigesimal positioning system, in which numbers in higher places grow multiplied by 20īs instead of the 10īs of the decimal system, compare number 168,421 in both systems:

Place Number
Decimal value
Equals & is
Vigesimal value
Equals & is
6th 1 X 100,000= 100,000 3'200,000  
5th 6 X 10,000 = 60,000 160,000
4th 8 X 1,000 = 8,000 8,000
3rd 4 X 100 = 400 400
2nd 2 X 10 = 20 20
1st 1 X 1 = 1 1
TOTAL   Arabic 168,421 Maya 168,421

d) Numbers in the Maya system can be written vertically or horizontally. In vertical writing, the bars are placed horizontally and the dots go on top of them, in this case the vigesimal positions grow up from the base. When written horizontally, the bars are placed vertically and the dots go to their left and higher vigesimal positions grow to the left of the first entry.

Thus when writing vertically the vigesimal positioning system, to write 20 a zero is placed in the first position (base) with a dot on top of it, in the second position. The dot in this place means one unit of the second order which equals to 20. To write 21, the zero would change to a dot (1 unit) and for the subsequent numbers the original 19 number count will follow in the first position. As they in turn reach 19 again another unit (dot) is added to the second position. Any number higher than 19 units in the second position is written using units of the third position. A unit of the third position is worth 400 (20 x 20), so to write 401 a dot goes in the first position, a zero in the second and a dot in the third. Positions higher than the third also grow multiplied by twenties from the previous ones. Examples of the numbers mentioned above follow:

(Note : the Maya made one exception to this order, only in their calendric calculations they gave the third position a value of 360 instead of 400, the higher positions though, are also multiplied by 20.)

Mayan Names For Numbers

0 xix im 10 lahun
1 hun 11 buluc 20 hun kal 400 hun bak
2 caa 12 lahca 40 ca kal 800 ca bak
3 ox 13 oxlahun 60 ox kal 1200 ox bak
4 can 14 canlahun 80 can kal 1600 can bak
5 hoo 15 hoolahun 100 hoo kal 2000 hoo bak
6 uac 16 uaclahun 120 uac kal 8,000 pic
7 uuc 17 uuclahun 140 uuc kal 160,000 calab
8 uaxac 18 uaxaclahun 200 ka hoo kal 3'200,000 kinchil
9 bolon 19 bolonlahun 300 ox hoo kal 64,000,000 alau
The Reformation

16th century

Luther's 95 Theses
Luther's 95 Theses

Here are some links that you might want to try

Ancient Artifacts

Jeremiah 29:11 "'For I know the plans I have for you," declares the LORD, 'plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.'"
Joshua 1:9"'Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous.  
Do not be terrified; 
Do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go.'"
Isaiah 40:28-31 "'Have you never heard? Have you never understood?The Lord is the everlasting God,the Creator of all the earth.He never grows weak or weary.No one can measure the depths of his understanding.29 He gives power to the weakand strength to the powerless.30 Even youths will become weak and tired,and young men will fall in exhaustion.31 But those who trust in the Lord will find new strength.They will soar high on wings like eagles.They will run and not grow weary.They will walk and not faint.'"